Third Epistle of John , similarly ascribed to John Epistle of Jude , traditionally ascribed to Jude Thomas, brother of Jesus and James The date and authorship of each of these letters are widely debated. The book is also called the Apocalypse of John. It consists primarily of a channeled message from Jesus to seven Christian churches, together with John’s dramatic vision of the Last Days, the Second Coming of Christ, and the Final Judgment. Apocrypha In ancient times there were dozens or even hundreds of Christian writings which were considered authoritative by some, but not all, ancient churches. These were not ultimately included in the book New Testament canon. These works are considered “apocryphal,” and are therefore referred to as the New Testament Apocrypha. Some were deemed by the orthodox churches to be heretical, while others were considered spiritually edifying but not early enough to be included, of dubious authorship, or controversial theologically even if not heretical. Authorship The New Testament is a collection of works, and as such was written by multiple authors.
Marcion and the Gospels
The Catholic New Testament , as defined by the Council of Trent , does not differ, as regards the books contained, from that of all Christian bodies at present. Like the Old Testament , the New has its deuterocanonical books and portions of books, their canonicity having formerly been a subject of some controversy in the Church. These are for the entire books:
The Gospel of Marcion, called by its adherents the Gospel of the Lord, was a text used by the mid-2nd-century Christian teacher Marcion of Sinope to the exclusion of the other many Christian apologists wrote treatises against Marcion after his death that it has been possible to reconstruct almost the whole of Marcion’s Gospel of the Lord from their quotations.
Details of manner or circumstance: The boy had barley loaves—6: When Mary poured the ointment, the house was filled with the fragrance— The branches used at the triumphant entry were palm branches— Roman soldiers come with the officers of the priests to arrest Jesus— The facecloth in which Jesus was buried was wrapped and lying in a place by itself— The author of the Fourth Gospel was an Apostle.
Marcion and the dating of the synoptic gospels
Download this article in a printer-friendly format. Introduction The most commonly asked question directed at me when I speak on university campuses or in churches is, “How was the New Testament formed? This article will focus on the documents in the New Testament canon. The early Christians accepted the Old Testament in the same format as the first century Jews. My initial understanding of this issue took place around 30 years ago when I took a New Testament survey course as a freshman in college.
In this text Tenney presents the following criteria to have been observed by the early church in the formation of the canon:
I would like to provide responses to the arguments and evidence that Richard Carrier offers to rebut my argument that Jesus existed. This task is complicated because, in his response to my original piece, Carrier says a surprisingly small amount that engages my argument and a large amount that does not.. Approximately half of his piece is devoted to other matters.
In relation with the feeding of the Lk9: Because those are sayings “logias” only, I do not see here any relation with GMatthew, more so owing to “compiled” rather than “composed” , as shown in most copies of Eusebius’ work HC. Furthermore, the fact that “Matthew” was attributed a collection of sayings therefore emphasizing Jesus as a sage is supported by the gospel of Thomas: Matthew said to him, “You are like a wise philosopher. Irenaeus, ‘Against Heresies’, V, And he says in addition, “Now these things are credible to believers.
By this Son , he says, was emitted the Word, Now since he is speaking of the first origination, he does well to begin the teaching at the beginning, i.
The Date of the Nativity in Luke (6th ed., 2011)
Strictly speaking, the Gospel is anonymous B. Papias the bishop of Hierapolis A. So Mark made no mistake in thus recording some things just as he remembered them.
The Four Gospels and the One Gospel of Jesus Christ [Martin Hengel] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Why did the church, in forming its canon of scripture, choose to include four different and sometimes contradictory accounts of the life of Jesus.
The present article is confined to the consideration of the relations and general features of the first 3 Gospels Matthew, Mark, Luke –ordinarily named “the nodetitle ,” because, in contrast with the Fourth Gospel, they present, as embodying a common tradition, the same general view of the life and teaching of Jesus during His earthly ministry, and of His death and resurrection.
The Fourth Gospel, in itself and in its relation to the Synoptics, with the Johannine literature and theology generally, are treated in special articles. See Gospel of John ; Johannine Theology , etc. The Gospels in Church Tradition: The place of the Gospels in church tradition is secure. It is acknowledged that by the end of the 2nd century these 4 Gospels, and none else, ascribed to the authors whose names they bear, were in universal circulation and undisputed use throughout the church, stood at the head of church catalogues and of all VSS, were freely used, not only by the Fathers of the church Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement, Origen, etc.
Justin Martyr , in the middle of the century, freely quotes from “Memoirs of the Apostles,” “which are called Gospels,” “composed by the apostles and those that followed them” 1 Apol. What these Gospels were is made apparent by the Diatessaron, or Harmony of Four, of his disciple Tatian circa , constructed from the 4 Gospels we possess. Moffatt likewise says, “These explanations of Matthew and Mark must have been in circulation by the end of the 1st century” Introduction to Lit.
The gist of the testimony of Papias is: The Gnostic Marcion used a mutilated Luke. Nature of the Problem:
The Gospel of Thomas
Vinzent proposed that Marcion of Sinope was the founder of the Gospel genre known to us in the Synoptic literature and therefore the terminus post quem of the Synoptics should be pushed as late as the time of Marcion around CE. This blog post is not a detailed review nor a response but a survey of the ideas that came to my mind while going through it. Vinzent and the Synoptic Problem The book is intensely engaged with scholarly literature and offers a breath of fresh air for some of the topics it is dealing with.
It comes in four chapters; the first and the fourth which is pretty short are for Marcion and his Gospel while the second and the third are for discussing the synoptic problem and the dating or re-dating of the NT Gospels. Of course the reader of these words can now imagine what an overwhelmingly huge task it is to prove his point. To do that in pages Vinzent had to make two major statements that nearly annihilated all the possible barriers on the way to his theory.
It evaluates our commonly known arguments for dating the Synoptic Gospels, elaborates on Marcion’s crucial role in the Gospel making and argues for a re-dating of the Gospels to the years between and AD.”–Page 4 of cover.
The Greek fragments are P. Oxy 1 is dated shortly after CE for paleographical reasons, and the other two Greek fragments are estimated to have been written in the mid third century. The Coptic text was written shortly before the year CE. Substantial differences do exist between the Greek fragments and the Coptic text. These are best explained as variants resulting from the circulation of more than one Greek edition of Gos.
The existence of three different copies of the Greek text of Gos. According to the critical edition of the Greek text by Attridge in Layton The presence of inner-Coptic errors in the sole surviving translation, moreover, suggests that our present Gos. The ms tradition indicates that this gospel was appropriated again and again in the generations following its composition. Like many other gospels in the first three centuries, the text of Gos.
The “Historical” Jesus?
Yahweh had agreed to make them his specially chosen people and to protect them, but only if they obeyed his Law. Covenants were made with Noah, which embraced all humankind, and with Abraham and his descendants; but the most important covenant was revealed to Moses. Later, after the division of the Jews into two kingdoms – Judah and Israel – the people of Judah believed that a special covenant had also been made with King David and his royal descendants. Yahweh was different from all other deities.
Israel was forbidden to worship any other god, and the Mosaic religion perhaps implied that no other existed, although this was not specifically emphasized until the time of the exile during the Babylonian Captivity – 37 BC. Other gods personified natural forces or tribes and nations, but Yahweh was supreme over everything.
Jesus Myth – The Case Against Historical Christ. By – January 03, The majority of people in the world today assume or believe that Jesus Christ was at the very least a real person.
As a revision of Luke’s[ edit ] Church Fathers wrote, and the majority of modern scholars agree,   that Marcion edited Luke to fit his own theology , Marcionism. The late 2nd-century writer Tertullian stated that Marcion, “expunged [from the Gospel of Luke] all the things that oppose his view The differences in the texts below highlight the Marcionite view that Jesus did not follow the Prophets and that the earth is evil. Luke Marcion O foolish and hard of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken Late 19th- and early 20th-century theologian Adolf von Harnack , in agreement with the traditional account of Marcion as revisionist, theorized that Marcion believed there could be only one true gospel, all others being fabrications by pro-Jewish elements, determined to sustain worship of Yahweh ; and that the true gospel was given directly to Paul the Apostle by Christ himself, but was later corrupted by those same elements who also corrupted the Pauline epistles.
In this understanding, Marcion saw the attribution of this gospel to Luke the Evangelist as a fabrication, so he began what he saw as a restoration of the original gospel as given to Paul. For this task he did not appeal to a divine revelation, any special instruction, nor to a pneumatic assistance [ In , Matthias Klinghardt proposed a new solution to the synoptic problem involving the Gospel of Marcion, in which the Gospel of Marcion was based on the Gospel of Mark , the Gospel of Matthew was an expansion of the Gospel of Mark with reference to the Gospel of Marcion, and the Gospel of Luke was an expansion of the Gospel of Marcion with reference to the Gospel of Matthew.
P69 and f13, HTR 98 , p.
The New Testament
The siglum Q derives from the German word"Quelle,” which means"Source. Although the temptation story and the healing of the centurion’s son are usually ascribed to Q, the majority of the material consists of sayings. Some scholars have observed that the Gospel of Thomas and the Q material, as contrasted with the four canonical gospels, are similar in their emphasis on the sayings of Jesus instead of the passion of Jesus.
Such a common order demands a theory that Q at some stage existed in written form. Tuckett comments on the argument that variations between Matthew and Luke are due to variant translations of an Aramaic Q op. It is doubtful if more than a very few cases of variation between Matthew and Luke can be explained in this way.
De canonvorming van het Nieuwe Testament is het proces dat uiteindelijk leidde tot een algemeen aanvaarde lijst van de geschriften van het Nieuwe aan het einde van de 2e eeuw bestond een canon die niet veel van de huidige verschilde. De tweede helft van de 4e eeuw vormde de beslissende fase van canonisering.
Jesus thanks His Father Return of the unclean spirit Discourse against the scribes and Pharisees Lament over Jerusalem Unlike triple-tradition material, double-tradition material is very differently arranged in the two gospels. Matthew’s lengthy Sermon on the Mount , for example, is paralleled by Luke’s shorter Sermon on the Plain , with the remainder of its content scattered throughout Luke. This is consistent with the general pattern of Matthew collecting sayings into large blocks, while Luke does the opposite and intersperses them with narrative.
These are termed the major and minor agreements the distinction is imprecise  e example is in the passion narrative, where Mark has simply, “Prophesy! The simplest hypothesis is that Luke relied on Matthew’s work or vice versa.
Marcion and the dating of the synoptic gospels
When were the gospels written? With their absence in Justin Martyr’s works, we remain with the dating of the gospels to the last quarter of the second century. The Gospel Dates When scrutinized, the Pauline epistles do not reveal any historical Jesus; nor do they demonstrate any knowledge of the existence of the four canonical gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. As has been proved repeatedly, the gospels themselves cannot be viewed as “history” written by “eyewitnesses. The New Testament is now known, in whole or in part, in nearly five thousand Greek manuscripts alone.
The Date of the Nativity in Luke (6th ed., ) Richard Carrier. It is beyond reasonable dispute that Luke dates the birth of Jesus to 6 A.D. It is equally indisputable that Matthew dates the birth of Jesus to 6 B.C. (or some year before 4 B.C.).
Saint Luke and Josephus. The word Lucas seems to have been unknown before the Christian Era ; but Lucanus is common in inscriptions, and is found at the beginning and end of the Gospel in some Old Latin manuscripts ibid. It is generally held that St. Luke was a native of Antioch. Loukas de to men genos on ton ap Antiocheias, ten episteuen iatros, ta pleista suggegonos to Paulo, kai rots laipois de ou parergos ton apostolon homilnkos–“Lucas vero domo Antiochenus, arte medicus, qui et cum Paulo diu conjunctissime vixit, et cum reliquis Apostolis studiose versatus est.
Spitta, Schmiedel, and Harnack think this is a quotation from Julius Africanus first half of the third century.
Marcion and the Dating of the Synoptic Gospels
Jesus thanks his Father Return of the unclean spirit Discourse against the scribes and Pharisees Lament over Jerusalem Unlike triple-tradition material, double-tradition material is very differently arranged in the two gospels. Matthew’s lengthy Sermon on the Mount , for example, is paralleled by Luke’s shorter Sermon on the Plain , with the remainder of its content scattered throughout Luke.
This is consistent with the general pattern of Matthew collecting sayings into large blocks, while Luke does the opposite and intersperses them with narrative. These are termed the major and minor agreements the distinction is imprecise ]e example is in the passion narrative, where Mark has simply, “Prophesy! The simplest hypothesis is that Luke relied on Matthew’s work or vice versa.
Information on the Lost Sayings Gospel Q. According to the Two Source Hypothesis accepted by a majority of contemporary scholars, the authors of Matthew and Luke each made use of two different sources: the Gospel of Mark and a non-extant second source termed Q.
Ook circuleerden er vanaf ongeveer talloze “brieven” die – al dan niet terecht – werden toegeschreven aan apostelen , zoals Paulus en Petrus , maar ook van Jakobus , Judas en Brief van Barnabas. Binnen deze traditie circuleerden vanaf ongeveer ook diverse apocalypsen, waarvan de Openbaring van Johannes het uiteindelijk heeft “gemaakt” tot canoniek. Een deel van deze andere geschriften zijn gnostische geschriften die in Nag Hammadi werden gevonden, zoals het Evangelie van Thomas.
Deze geschriften stammen waarschijnlijk uit de 2e en 3e eeuw. De meesten hebben nooit algemene erkenning genoten. Een klein aantal geschriften de brief van Barnabas , de Leer van de Apostelen , de Herder van Hermas en 1 en 2 Clemens hadden bij velen een groot gezag, maar hebben uiteindelijk geen algemene erkenning gekregen. Het proces van canonisatie[ be[ bewerken ]teria[ be[ bewerken ]gens nieuwtestamenticus Bart D.
Ehrman hanteerden de proto-orthodoxe christenen vier criteria om te bepalen welke boeken in de canon thuishoorden en welke niet. Te recente geschriften zoals De herder van Hermas werden uitgesloten. Een boek moest apostolisch zijn, dat wil zeggen, geschreven door een apostel of een metgezel van een apostel van Jezus. Er waren discussies over wie tot deze apostolische vaders dienden te worden gerekend.
Een boek moest orthodox zijn, dat wil zeggen, in lijn met de proto-orthodoxe theologie. Zo werd bijvoorbeeld de Openbaring van Petrus uitgesloten, omdat de christologie ervan docetisch was in plaats van hypostatisch.